Unites states has a very unique system of health care delivery that opposes the normal health care system from various countries in the world. To be specific, other countries have their national health insurance programs governed by the government where they are financed through general taxes. In such countries, all citizens are entitled to receive better health care services. Contrary , this is not the case in United States. In US not all citizens are automatically covered by the health care insurance.
There are various characteristics that shape the US health care system. These characteristics are the external influences that shape the fundamental character of US health services delivery system. These external forces consist of the political climate of US, technological progress, economic development, population characteristics, social and cultural values, physical environment as well as demographic, global influences and health trends in US (Smith, Wertheimer & Fincham, 2013). The basic combination of these environmental forces usually influences the course of health care delivery in US.
Some of the characteristics that are associated with US health care delivery include;
No central agency to govern the US health care delivery.
This means that United States health care system is not administratively controlled by an agency or department from the government. As opposed to US system, other developed countries have their national health care programs where every citizen has to receive specified set of health care services. With these free services, there are cases of compromising the system financially. In order to have control over costs, the countries have global budgets to determine health care expenditures nationally and allocate the resources upon the budgetary limits. This shows that the availability of the health care services as well as the compensation of the providers is dependent on the budgetary constraints thereby compromising quality specialized services. In contrast United States has predominant private system of financing and also delivery of the services. Thus means that there is no central agency to monitor total expenditures through global budgets as well as availability and utilization of the services. The government plays a vital role of formulating standards of participation through health policy as well as regulation to ensure that the providers comply with the standards established by the government to be certified health care providers. This ensures that the citizens in US obtain quality and specialized health care services.
Over the recent past, a lot of debate and focus has been shifted to ObamaCare within America as every American citizen feels that their lives will be affected either positively or negatively by the act. ObamaCare is the new reform in health care within America. It is said to increase availability, quality, and affordability of both public and private healthcare insurance. The act is said to help the 44 million uninsured American citizens and curb the healthcare spending growth (McCaughey, 2013).The numerous provisions provided by the healthcare act and health insurance will be improved. ObamaCare is known as the affordable care act. Some key provision of the affordable care act includes stopping the insurance companies from letting go of their clients once they are considered to be sick, elimination of the pre-existing conditions, expansion of Medicaid to 15.9 million, and the creation of exchanges which are state specific marketplace of health insurance. These exchanges arewhere the low and middle income earners within America will be able to purchase cheaper and even free health insurance. The many provisions within ObamaCare give protection to new patients when dealing with any insurance company. In return ObamaCare will require every individual with the ability to afford a health insuranceplan to obtain one by 2014 or else will be required to pay a fee (McCaughey, 2013).
The Impact of ObamaCare’s Requirements on the Nation’s Health as a Whole
Most of the citizens of America might face a rude awakening as soon as they discover the subsidies that they once thought they were receiving to offset the total cost of their healthcare are not what they were promised in the first place. Some individual are claiming that subsidies on ObamaCare are exempted from spending reductions that is recognized by the budget control act (BCA). From the upcoming cuts, the BCA is known to only exempt premium subsidies but not the cost sharing subsidies. A lot of ObamaCare critics have blamed the Obama administration of failing to fully inform the American people on every critical issue under the ObamaCare law. Even though the requirements of ObamaCare plan may be viewed as an attempt to increase the amount of money paid by citizens and business to health insurance companies, the plan will improve the healthcare system of the United States (McCaughey, 2013). There is nothing good that lacks a disadvantage, but the good effects of the ObamaCare plan overshadows the misdoing of the same plan. The main aim of ObamaCare is to improve the nation health generally and all this may be said to be included within the non-perfect ObamaCare healthcare plan. Many healthcare plans have been proposed within the United States, and most of them till now are still considered to have failed. ObamaCare plan is aimed at increasing the number of American people having access to healthcare services, and also make this process more affordable than it was before. The end result will be a stronger and a healthier nation.
The ObamaCare law states that the health plan being offered to personal and small group markets and within outside and inside of the insurance marketplace of health, will be offering essential benefits of health. Within this new healthcare plan, it is crucial to note that all the grandfathered plans that had been purchased before the enactment of the law will not be required to deliver and provide this service(McCaughey, 2013). The new 2014 plan includes some ten crucial benefits that will have to part of any insurance plan. These benefits are; dental and vision healthcare for the children, preventive care, prescription drug, rehabilitative services, pediatric care, ambulatory or outpatient care, substance abuse and mental health treatment, maternity care, medical laboratory services, emergency services, hospitalizations.
These essential benefits provisions on every sold insurance plan will have no sharing of cost on the ObamaCare online marketplace for health insurance. The new ObamaCare 2014 plans have quite some different changes from the previous ObamaCare plan and all aimed at making the affordable health care available to all the Americans citizens without taking into consideration their ability to pay and medical history (Press, 2013).
From January 1st 2014, most of the American citizens will be mandated to have a health insurance. The health insurance will be purchased by those who are capable and can afford it or else be penalized by a tax. There will be no more denials of pre-existing conditions. This means that at the commencement of the healthcare plan on January 1st 2014, the insurers will not have the right to deny coverage to a person on the claims of the pre-existing conditions. Also the insurers will to be allowed to charge an individual more due to their gender or as compared to a healthy person within the same age. This gives people who are seriously ill the ability to purchase insurance. The number of the primary care doctors will be increased to increase coordinated care. This move is aimed at trying to curb the challenges American citizens get when trying to access healthcare system with few primary care doctors. With the increase in the number of insured people, more primary care doctors will be extremely crucial to make this plan work effectively(Press, 2013). Coordinated care is improved by the health plan and payment rates increased for primary care doctors working in the rural areas and those who accept Medicaid.
Another crucial point to take note off is the minimal coverage level offered by the essential benefits healthcare plan. A comprehensive essential benefits package will be a requirement for all the individual health plans as well as those purchased by small business either out or in of the exchanges of health insurance. The health law began funding the training of more physicians in primary care while increasing community health center resources. The ObamaCare 2014 also plans on expanding Medicaid in order to assist the low income earner within America. It is approximated that about 17 million citizens of the United States are eligible to benefit from Medicaid. With the enactment of the 2014 new ObamaCare, states can choose to expand the Medicaid program within their states to all the legal residents that are under the age of 65 and earning an amount less than $15302 for a single person while for a family of four to be earning less than $31155 (Press, 2013).
The ObamaCare is observed to offer quite a wide range of services and benefits to families and individuals. With some in-depth look into the healthcare plan, the plan’s benefits are more than the tax breaks and services. The healthcare plan core is ensuring that all the American have a right to healthcare. Also it helps American to look for a new job without the risk of losing their coverage
A mandate is considered to be a penalty or shared responsibility charge.Small businesses are required to pay a penalty of $2000 per every employee in the situation that they have not covered their full time employees. A penalty of $3000 is paid by small business if the health insurance plan was purchased through premium credit exchanges. In this particular exchange, the first 30 employees will be exempted from the penalty.The penalty is used to offset the employees cost when using the emergency room services or exchange based on the employer insurance plan.Statistics shows that 5.8 million out of 6 million firms within the United States are considered tohave less than 50 employees. Hence these firm may choose not provide a health insurance plan to their employees and still escape the penalty.Full time employees of the 5.8 million firms are already covered. Only about 2 percent which translate to about 10000 small businesses are required to make provisions for healthinsurance plans to their employees before the due date or else be faced with the ObamaCare penalty (McKenzie, Neiger & Thackeray, 2012).
McCaughey. B. (2013). Beating Obamacare: Your Handbook for the New Health Care Law Paperback. Regnery Publishing
McCaugheyB, (2010),Obama Health Law: What It Says and How to Overturn It (Encounter Broadsides).: Encounter Books Publishers
McKenzie, J. F., Neiger, B. L., & Thackeray, R. (2012). Planning, implementing, &evaluatinghealth promotion programs: A Primer. (6th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Benjamin Cummings Publishers
Press G, (2013),Obamacare for Beginners: Your Survival Guide Book to Beating Obamacare, Garamond Press
Smith, M. I., Wertheimer, A. I., & Fincham, J. E. (2013). Pharmacy and the US healthcare system. London: Pharmaceutical Press.
Educational goals are societal goals, administrative goals and educational aim, and educational goals and learning objectives. Educational goals are more remote than learning objectives. The educational goals include what policy makers or people want society’s educational organizations to achieve. It includes what people want formal educational organizations. It also includes whatever people are planned to learn as a result of being learners in educational institutions (Posner, 2003). Educational goals help to transfer the characteristics and traits to a person that gets the degree from the college or university.
- Levels of educational purposes
There are five types of educational purposes such as
- Social goals,
- Administrative goals,
- Educational aims,
- Educational goals,
- And learning objectives.
- Societal goals – In these goals, the political, economic and social achievement is included. The purpose is to see the person successful in all these three goals. For example, any political personality.
- Administrative goals are that goal which includes the administration of any leader in the organization. He or she is responsible for all the management of the organization. Such as principal in a school.
- Educational aims: This are set by policymakers. They want society’s educational to achieve. For instance, the aim of improving a respect for people of different cultures is relay on the importance of cultural multiplicity.
There are four categories that include educational and training dimensions:
- Personal development includes self-realization and personal life.
For example, students learn about healthy food (education), they start to avoid junk food (training).
- Socialization includes interpersonal relations and socialization to deal with others.
For example, studying other culture and knowing more about its believing (education) help students accept and respect others such as foreigners (training).
- Economic productivity effects on both aspects a consumer and employee.
For example, students learn about benefits of recycle processes (education) they help employees collect raw materials (training).
- Further learning leads basic skills and requirements for continuous education.
For example, students at school learn how to search for information to support their idea and critical thinking (education) they use research through their daily life and use library in these processes and critical thinking help student express clearly about their opinion (training).
- Educational goals: As we explained above.
- Learning objectives: these goals include all the characteristics that help the individual to become acceptable in the society. In this goal, it allows the student to learn about different things and world. For example: student
These five levels are interrelated with taxonomy bloom, Gagne’s categories, and Ryle’s two types of knowledge.
- Bloom’s Taxonomy
The author of one of the first schemes of pedagogical goals was an American scientist B. Bloom. They were published for the first part of the “Taxonomy” (1956). In subsequent decades, D. Kratvolem and other scientists had created the second part of the “Taxonomy” (in the affective domain). The first part describes the goals of the cognitive (cognitive) regions. There are three domain such as Cognitive region, affective (emotional and value) area and Psychomotor domain.
- Cognitive domain
This includes the goal of memorization and reproduction of the material studied to solve the problems in the course of which it is necessary to rethink the existing knowledge to build their new combinations with a preliminary study of ideas, methods and procedures (modes of action), including the creation of a new one. To include most of the area of cognitive learning objectives put forward in the curricula, textbooks, in the daily practice of teachers.
- Purpose of standards
The purposes of standards are for teachers to adapt what they educate and pass their curriculum into position by the learning prospect summarized in the new standards. Whereas the technical position of curriculum by standards does not essentially denote that teachers are education in conformity by the standards—or, moreover, that students are truly attaining those learning prospect—learning values keep a mechanism through which administration and school leaders try to develop prospectus and teaching quality.
- An example of a “standard”
For example, is a national attempt to persuade curriculum propose and teaching feature in schools throughout the acceptance of new learning and education standards by states. Standards mean how we maintain our values. How any school or college maintains its standard to keep the curriculum according to the appropriate class?
For example: types of solar system should be study in the class 4th grade.
- Curriculum alignment
Schools tries to improve curriculum excellence by getting course expectations and teaching activities into “alignment” by educational standards and more school lessons—a practice usually know as “curriculum mapping(Posner, 2003).”
- Behavioral perspective and relationship to purpose and content of curriculum
Behavioral perspective with relationship to purpose and content of curriculum helps the students to perform better in their studies. Behavioral perspective includes how students able to finish the curriculum. What strategies should be used which helps the student to motivate and develop interest in their studies? The behaviors are identified by the scores of the students, if the student gets the A grade, he or she reinforced by the school.
The behaviors are also identified by what the student should know, feel, or be able to do as a result of studying the topic. The scores help to find how well students have done in achieving the targeted knowledge, skill, or disposition. Reinforcement is gained by the grades as you indicated above, but correct behaviors are also reinforced during the teaching/learning segments by the ways teachers provide instructive feedback.
- Constructivist perspective and relationship to purpose and content of curriculum
Constructivist’s perspective includes how people understand to make feeling around the globe and think more successfully and efficiently. Constructivists examine young children as energetic participants in the educational procedure. With respect, constructivists think young children start most of the actions needed for development and learning (Posner, 2003).
- Conceptual change approach
Learning is viewed more as a developmental or conceptual change as an accumulation of new elements. Several learning models have been proposed from this point of view, some from the epistemological literature. The teacher responds directly to students’ ideas by helping them move towards the view of scientists. It is therefore essential to know the area they are teaching, conceptions that students tend to use in this area and the conceptual path they follow once teaching is underway. Knowledge of this conceptual path outlines the dynamic process of classroom learning routes whatever the specific field. Conceptual pathways cannot by their very nature, be explained to learners individually before the start of teaching (through, for example, a theoretical comparison between the initial designs of the students and the result sought by the school). The only practice can enable the teacher to know the usual conceptual changes, and the acquisition of this knowledge contributes its expertise and develops self-confidence (Koponen, 2014).
- Cognitive apprenticeship
For cognitive apprenticeship, teaching-learning is essentially a process of information processing. Indeed, “the teacher constantly processing a lot of information: it includes the information on the field of knowledge retained for purposes of instruction; it covers information on the affective components of the student; It covers information on the cognitive components of the student; It also deals with … information related to classroom management.
Students also handle a variety of information. It deals with the emotional information that comes specifically from his previous school experiences (aims of the new task, value assigned to this task and perceived control as possible over his success); it processes cognitive information; it puts the new information in relation with prior knowledge, selects strategies deemed most appropriate for the task successfully, it also deals with meta cognitive information
- Reading Recovery
Reading Recovery is a school-based, intervention of shorter term planned for students aged 5-6, who are the low in achieving literacy following their 1st school year. These students are frequently not capable to read the easy books or even write their name previous to the intervention. This intervention is dissimilar for every child, evaluating what the student understands and what he needs to study next.
Hegemony is the ability to convince others of the usefulness of imposing solutions, as opposed to the use of force or threats to achieve the same result. This term is also used in a variety of social, cultural and economic contexts: for example, the suppression of one class by another company.
- Curriculum organization
Curriculum organization means the procedure of choosing curriculum components from the subject, the students’ practice and the present social life, after that designing the chosen curriculum components correctly in order that they can structure the curriculum type and structure. Curriculum organization is the procedure to modify the content into learners’ education experiences deliberately, and create educational experiences integral, sequential ,consecutive after prospectus philosophy has been explained, curriculum objective been placed, curriculum content been chosen.
- Macro level of organization
This level includes government decisions that determine the basic structure, organization of school. Curriculum can make reference to what a school or academic system recommends for a specific group of students or at what the instructor does in education. But generally program represents a macro (e.g. a course) or a small stage (e.g. a lesson). It includes all the activities out the class. It addresses larger curriculum issues such as those with a series of courses or a program.
- Micro level of organization
Micro level of organization consists of the “development and function of classroom-based activities” It is the particular world of the class room and the teacher-student connections. It includes all the activities in the classroom.
- Horizontal organization
Many companies are structured like a pyramid: decisions are taken by staff at higher levels and carried out by staff at lower levels. Horizontal organization is involved with part by part connections or integration, that is, how one place of the program pertains to another; for example, how subjects in arithmetic correspond with subjects in science when presented at the same level.
- Vertical organization
Vertical organization guarantees series and a continual within a given topic area, not only for a particular quality but also between qualities. One example of vertical company is putting ‘the family’ in the quality 1 public research curriculum and ‘the community’ in Grade 2. Another way of straight organization is where topic curricula are structured so that the same subjects are handled in different qualities but progressively more challenging stages. This corresponds to Bruner’s concept of the manage curriculum
- Discrete content configuration
Discrete configuration means a set or a plurality of objects denoted basis of more or less identical in shape (having the same physical structure or shape). The nature of this set, or set can be either spatial, for example, a flock of seagulls (flying together) or temporary (implying a repetition), for example, a flock of seagulls (flying one behind the other). Other examples of expressions that transform the discrete configuration: grove, a set of screwdrivers, a group of soldiers, a pile of leaves, a plate of grapes, a series of hammer blows, pitted pits area. Thus, a set of identical objects is simply referred to the decline in the words of a discrete configuration. This configuration can be applied to orangize the curriculum properly.
But in what way can it be applied to organize a curriculum properly? In this regard, it means that subjects can be presented separately from other subjects as integration is not necessarily required.
- Linear content configuration
Some curriculum professionals say that the phrases are followed in a series or a straight row. This model that supposes that curriculum choice creating follows a straight line is known as linear content configuration.
- Hierarchical content configuration
The hierarchical content configuration includes classes that represent physical entities, such as servers and files, and containers of these entities, such as farms and folders. The program provided by a college to learners should not be simply a selection of individual pieces of information and irrelevant experiences.
- Spiral content configuration
In a ‘spiral content configuration’, concepts perhaps introduced on a easy level in the untimely scores, then revisited by increasingly complexity and request later on.
- Parallel media structure
The term “parallel media structure” is describe a clear sight from viewpoint that shed the difficult relations of other terms; just, a particular thematic region by multiple demonstrations and iterations.
- Role of technology in curriculum organization
Technology is everywhere, touching about every part of communities, lives, and homes. However the majority of schools lag distant behind as it approaches to technology into organization of curriculum. It does not depend on the type of educational institution and from a taught subject, course or elective(McKernan, &McKernan, 2013).
Epistemology or theory of knowledge is a section of philosophical knowledge (philosophical science, philosophical discipline), in which we investigate the possibility of man’s knowledge of the world, as well as the knowledge of man himself; investigate the movement of knowledge from ignorance to knowledge; explores the nature of knowledge in themselves and in relation to those objects, which are reflected in this knowledge.
- Epistemological assumptions
An epistemological assumption is the problem of explaining and understanding the consequence of the problem of correlation between faith and knowledge, where faith is gradually giving way to intuition. Explanation is based on a logic model events constructed by analogy with other events. Understanding involves intuitive knowledge of event in its uniqueness and diversity.
Specialization entails focusing on a narrow area of knowledge or skill or activity.
Openness is an overarching idea or viewpoint that is recognized by a focus on visibility and free unlimited access information and information as well as collaborative or supportive control and making decisions rather than a main authority.
Stratified curricula stay in the extensive secondary school; learners are allowed to monitor themselves through their choice of programs, determining which levels of programs to complete and how far to relocate through the program.
Status includes the position of the students in the classroom. More accurately, it relates to the ranking in perceived importance of the subject.
- top-down/hypothetical-deduction approach
The hypothetical-deductive approach is the one most commonly used by researchers, is the traditional approach of modern science. It consists of the following steps:
1 The researcher asks departure
- Formula deductions or inferences based on empirical knowledge he has on the subject.
- It takes or building a theory, makes one or more research hypotheses (tentative answer to the research question)
- Conducts empirical tests to verify or refute the assumptions or
If assumptions are verified, the search stops there, it must communicate the results.
- Substantive structure
Substantive structure examines the overall framework of a guide, papers, or web page. Whether it’s a stories manuscript or a complicated company review, we ask as many concerns as necessary to thoroughly comprehend your intent; then we perform with you to form your content into the best possible framework. We create sure your concept serves your particular viewers and method by verifying your text’s reasoning, company, importance, and precision. Substantive structure is the conceptual structure of a discipline.
- Syntactical structure
“Syntactic Structures” means the theory of generative grammars and the theory of formal languages. Year of work in the light is considered to be the starting point of generative linguistics. The release of “syntactic structures” led to the emergence of cognitive science. In the “syntactic structures”, in contrast to descriptivist’s – representatives direction, followed by the development of generative linguistics – the focus is not on the description of individual languages, and on the problem of constructing a general theory, which is an abstraction from the grammars of particular languages. Students use rich terminology, complex syntactic components, discussion indicators and different signs up to match audience and purpose perfectly and properly. More accurately, this relates to how “truth” is reached in an academic discipline – what constitutes acceptable evidence upon which conclusions can be based.
- Overarching themes
Overarching themes for the year are selected for the learners. For examples, overarching themes are cause and effect, cycles, and systems. It examines that theme in multiple units integrating contented from science, math, language arts, history, social studies, culture, literature, technology, critical thinking, and performing arts and visual collectively.
- bottom-up/inductivist approach
A bottom-up approach (called bottom-up) or down (called top-down) characterizes the general principle of operation of a procedural approach. In the first analysis, the distinction may designate the sense of an intellectual process:
- It may be a synthesis (bottom-up) where we start to detail, “down”, that is to say, the finest level to gradually consolidate and operate a synthesis.
- It can be an analysis (top-down) where, starting from the set, we break down into smaller and detailed elements, culminating in a “flattening”, “full dissection,” an overview of the object studied.
Prerequisites are the basic formality before developing any curriculum. It is the basic step for any development of syllabus(Pinar).
- Project approach
The project approach represents a way of studying and educating, as well as to the content of what is trained and discovered. Tasks provide the central source of the children’s and teachers’ studying encounters. They are in accordance with the strong indictment that studying by doing is a vast amount of that to talk about in categories and to review ideas and encounters is the leading way of getting better understanding and studying. Tasks are in accordance with the children’s passions and their acquainted knowledge.
McKernan, J., &McKernan, J. (2013). Curriculum action research: A handbook of methods and resources for the reflective practitioner. Routledge.
Koponen, I. T. (2014). Introduction: Conceptual Change and Its Models.Science & Education, 1-2.
Pinar, W. F. (Ed.). (2013). International handbook of curriculum research.Routledge.
Posner, G. (2003). Analyzing the Curriculum. New York: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages; .
Law and Justice
Examine ethical issues involving politics and the police. Illustrate how politics can have a negative impact on policing by providing an example. Explain some methods for minimizing political influences on the police.
Police and Politics both have the main motive of maintaining law and order in the country. But sometimes law is not established by the police, instead politics influences the police in a way that police becomes unable to perform its regular duties. This is one of the big problems in many of the countries in the world. It is a form of corruption. According to Hanrahan, Noelle (2011), political forces of a country always has a great influence on the law and order of a country as they are the people who make the rules and regulations and who govern the law. But there are times when, for personal benefits, political leaders pressurize police to deter from their duties and they make them not abide by the law. For example, political leaders in some countries use students to campaign for them in elections. These students also volunteer in the routine activities of the party. But these students being politically attached, start taking law lightly and they sometimes break rules and think that they will not be caught as they are the part of the political gallery. It happens usually that the supporting leaders often pressurize the police to release the charges that are filed over them and bend the law for petty reasons. This makes them feel more powerful and encourages them to take the law in their hands. This is highly detrimental for the country’s law. The methods that can be implemented for minimizing such problem is that law should be unified i.e. made one for all. There should be no relief for anyone who is guilty. Other than that, political leaders should refrain from getting their opinions into the matters related to law. It will make them have a better image in the public’s eye and they will be able to justify the profiles they are being given by the public.
Compare the ethics of criminals with the ethics of law-abiding citizens. Explain what type of ethics criminals have, if any. Infer the reasons why some people develop “alternate” ethics that coincide with criminal behavior.
In theory, there are no such ethics of criminals. But like any other community, they have some set of protocols as perceived by the law practitioners. Unlike civilians, their laws are strict and they do their own justice if their laws are violated. They have their own ethics and those are meant to be followed otherwise they pay for it with their lives. From a distance, it can be seen that they have some ethics like not intruding into the area of the other criminal and not to mess with another criminal’s targets. Apart from this, they vouch for secrecy and this is also one of the important ethics they follow. As per Richardson, Theresa (2001), the law-abiding citizens go to the police when they seek for justice. But the criminals do the justice of their own. They do not wait or seek another judgment. The law abiding citizens of any country are supposed to follow the law and protocols of the social behavior. But the criminals go beyond all this. They make their laws and have a stern hatred towards the normal law and order. They believe in doing justice right away and that is one of the most important factors of making them criminals. They are criminals because they do not follow law like normal citizens. But what makes them like this is also a great question. Some people develop alternate ethical concepts that coincide with criminal ethics. This happens because due to certain delays or injustice, people lose their faith in the law and decide to take an initiative of their own. This sometimes include unethical practices which they think are ethical and then these people end up in trouble. Another reason for this is they are not treated right by the police and in order to redeem themselves they develop such alternate ethics of their own. Usually these ethics are not viable with the law and such people also lead to crime in several situations.
Analyze the ethics of punishment. Classify at least three different forms of punishment (such as incarceration or the death penalty) as either ethical or unethical and explain.
The ethics of punishment is one of the most difficult areas of ethics. The infliction of pain on a particular person because he caused harm to other person is the ethic that is constantly followed in punishment. Since punishment is always reactive and tends to be revenge based, it is very difficult to maintain the ethical grounds. The main three forms of punishment that are common in most parts of the world are Capital punishment, Imprisonment and Penalty. According to Hagan et al (1996), Capital Punishment is considered the strictest form of punishment as it costs the life of the convicted. It is banned in many parts of the world. Many practitioners have debated constantly about it and most of them consider it as unethical because giving death sentence to someone is very harsh. Once a man is dead, the punishment can never be reversed. They say that there are more methods of inflicting law on people. There are many other forms of punishments that can be given to make a person improve. On the other hand, some people support the capital punishment as they believe that this way one can be corrected to the maximum limit. This punishment sets an example for other criminals and hence many people consider it ethical. The other form of punishment is Imprisonment. Compared to capital punishment, Imprisonment is not that strict but the police administration makes it mild or harsh for the inmates. It is considered ethical by most of the practitioners as this is only limiting their right of freedom as they are dangerous to the society. The third form is Penalty which some people think is unethical because the criminal does not get affected by this. He just pays for the crime and walks free. There are different opinions of people about different type of punishments. But their ethical degree can only be decided depending upon the crime they have committed. Hence both the aspects should be carefully advised before any decision.
Explain the concepts of moral weakness and moral change. Provide examples of each.
The concept of moral weakness is denser than it appears to be. The moral weakness comes from people’s ethical backgrounds. It is supposed to be higher and lower depending upon the situation they are into. According to Solomon, Robert C. and Clancy Martin (2005), Moral weakness is generally the idea of giving into things you know are not morally correct. Many people are prone to moral weakness as their determination is not strong enough to fight for the right. But others also fall prey to moral weakness because of the situations they are put into. Being morally weak is not a habit or nature. It depends upon the situation also. People give up to morally incorrect things because of multiple reasons. They may find the reasons lucrative or beneficial and surrender to them. However, some people may find it difficult to cope up with the emotions and give up to the moral weakness.
If we talk about moral change, it is a twisted concept. People get affected by moralistic theories and they change their moral values. Some or the other factors impact people’s moral values and they tend to change it according to their convenience or need of the hour. Moral change is a matter of choice though. People change their moral principles according to their convenience or suitability. This is a common activity in people as people generally drop those ideas that bug them and they opt for those values that are easy to follow of to abide by. People get influenced by their heroes, idols and any other example they have seen in their lives and they change their moral values according to them. The main commodity of this moral change is ‘influence’. How much influenced they are with the factors that affect their moral values is the factor deciding moral change. The concepts are fairly relevant in all fields of life and the examples can be found everywhere in the society.
Examine the issues of police brutality and police use of force. Compare situations in which police use of force is appropriate versus those in which it can be considered brutality. Provide a real-life example, if possible.
Police brutality is a common problem in many parts of the world. Police is given certain powers over the citizens of a particular country and they often take it for granted and start using these powers for the establishment of law without any need of its use. According to Johnson, Marilynn S. (2004), the unnecessary usage of power by the police on the normal citizens for law enforcement is known as police brutality. In many countries police uses these powers to implicate people to admit things they have not even done. This falls under the criteria of corruption. Police uses third-degree on the criminals to speak the truth in many countries which is considered unethical. But it is important also as these criminals are strong-willed and are trained to keep secrets. If they are not treated brutally to some extent, they will not be giving up. Hence this is considered as a viable method of brutality. However, police uses brutality for its own benefits in many areas. Many a times, when police is not able to catch the wanted criminal, they catch any petty criminal or thief and torture them so that they confess to what they have not even done. They are then convicted and the police justify its duties. But this is highly inappropriate as here police brutality gets used for an unethical purpose. Police uses its powers many a times to control a particular situation in case there is a mob charge or protestant rally. But using too much brutality on citizens is not a decent way to enforce law on the people of the country. Other than that, police should opt for ethical methods of controlling a situation rather than hurting people. This is highly unethical and should be taken care of Police brutality should be limited and people should be made aware of their rights so that this problem can be eliminated from the society.
Compare and contrast the ethical standards of the adult criminal justice system versus the juvenile justice system. Are there any special ethical considerations when working with juveniles? Explain.
Children who commit any type of crime fall under the criteria of Juvenile justice system. There are different ethical standards for juvenile and adult justice system. Juvenile crime is a much concerned and complicated justice system in the world of law and order. Children are naive and they are prone to get influenced and commit a crime on instructions. They can be taught to do things and they might repeat it. However, most of them are considered deliberate crimes and hence are treated as strictly as adults only. But a juvenile has some special ethical rights over the adults. There should be no use of power on the juvenile which means ethically, they should not be beaten or pressurised mentally to admit to the crime they did not do. Sicklund, M.; Sladky, A.; Kang, W. (2014) argued that they are granted special attorney who specialise in juvenile matters and they get access to juvenile justice manuals. But they are also not granted same rights as adults. For instance, juveniles do not get bail or right to a public trial. Their matters are specifically dealt in juvenile courts. Once convicted, they are kept in different prisons made for juveniles only. Adults have completely different system of justice when it comes to crime. They can avail bail and their trials are public. Also they are kept in prisons that are common and their access to resources is very limited. These ethical differences are impended in the justice system of most of the countries keeping in mind that the mental and physical status of both type of people are completely different. They should be given different ethical rights based upon the kind of age they are in.
Hagan, John, A.R. Gillis, and David Brownfield (1996). Capital Punishment Controversies: A Methodical Primer. Boulder: Westview, 81-3.
Hanrahan, Noelle (2011). Political Influence on Police System of America, on Judi Bari Web Site of the Redwood Summer Justice Project. judibari.org.
Richardson, Theresa (2001). Criminals and Their Rights: a controversy, Canadian Journal of History 36 (1): 184–186.
Sicklund, M.; Sladky, A.; Kang, W. (2014). Easy Access to Juvenile Court Statistics: 1985-2011, National Center for Juvenile Justice.
Solomon, Robert C. and Clancy Martin (2005). Moral Weakness: kneeling to the influence. London: Thomson Wadsworth. ISBN 0534633285.
“Two truths and a lie” by Scott Turner
Two Truths and a Lie is a diary as three performance plays composed and performed by Scott Turner Schofield. From inside the frequently comical however genuine snippets of his young life on the Homecoming Court and Debutante Ball circuit (in a dress), outfitted with just a decoder ring and a skilled tongue, Schofield turns out with genuinely unfathomable stories of a body looking for a personality. By turns droll and slap-to-the-face, this dramatization welcomes gatherings of people and readers to investigate sexual orientation, sex, sexuality, and self in their first individual.
Departmental talks in the book differ from women’s/sex studies to social work, brain science, political science, and humanism. Schofield handles sex personality from the beginning, embellishment his individual encounters and perceptions of sex, sexuality, race and class in light of any course’s educational program. Normally this implies reacting to readings in women’s/sexual orientation considers 101 to the graduate level, however different themes have included masculinities and eccentric hypothesis, individual way of life as formed by social approach, sex and closeness in transgender personalities, sex brutality and peacemaking, and arranging distinction in the DSM-IV.
In the book, members are acquainted with the numerous ways that execution is utilized to roll out social improvement, and are then tested to make their own. Plans are performed and/or talked about, with consideration paid to clarity of substance and message, gathering of people, and venue. Members leave with an execution piece and strategies for finishing and spreading their craft. With respect to the falsehood: I for the most part don’t love live execution, particularly anything that includes bareness, gathering of people investment or the singing of 80’s pop melodies. Scott, it ought to be paid in advance and frequently, is essentially an entrancing entertainer. You could listen to his voice throughout the night. He has comic timing tattooed on his qualities and he can make the excursion from incongruity to earnestness in 3 seconds level. Take a fantastic minute in Debutante Balls when Scott has meandered in his kid persona into a medication store searching for a make-up counter woman to change him from kid to debutante:
While the on-screen character writhes in his scrape, Betsy comprehends that activity is required and she arrives at for the radio catch and declares: “TRACEY, PLEASE COME TO THE MAKEUP COUNTER. WE HAVE A SITUATION.” Tracey is as baffled as Betsy yet both more seasoned ladies react with a mixture of act of spontaneity and sympathy. Obviously, Schofield makes it to the move on time, make up in place, conscience to a degree frayed and sex in a state of flux. This is only one of numerous minutes in the creation of Schofield where funny cuddles up right by strong and adage sits joyfully alongside profound sensational understanding.
As Schofield likes to say, you can’t make this stuff up, or all the more precisely: “validity holds up for no execution craftsman.” Tying truth to misrepresentation, sex to exes Schofield loves to say, you cannot make this stuff up, or more exactly: “credibility waits for no performance artist.” Tying truth to falsehood, gender to performance and all of the above to geography and class, Schofield is a prophet in motion. It would not be quite right to call what he does a “one man show,” because like Peggy Shaw and Kate Bornstein before him, Schofield cannot limit himself to one man. He moves through identities like a drag queen in a medley or a femme in a shoe store. As he twists his lithe body in and out of dresses, t-shirts with slogans, leopard print panties and boxers, the obviously audience gets to experience gender like a fun fair ride – ups and downs, shocks and lulls, thrills and exhilaration. But this gender in motion is not an actor’s gimmick for Schofield and nor is it prescriptive or a manifesto on fluidity. No, Schofield’s real argument is for complexity. In a utopian moment, he explains: caution and the greater part of the above to geology and class, Schofield is a prophet in movement. It would not be right to call what he does a “small time show,” on the grounds that like Peggy Shaw and Kate Bornstein before him, Schofield can’t restrain himself to one man. He travels through characters like a drag ruler in a variety or a femme in a shoe store. As he winds his agile body well and done with dresses, shirts with trademarks, panther print undies and boxers, the clearly gathering of people gets to encounter sex like a fun reasonable ride – good and bad times, stuns and quiets, rushes and thrill. Yet this sex in movement is not an on-screen character’s trick for Schofield and nor is it prescriptive or a proclamation on ease. No, Schofield’s true contention is for intricacy. In a utopian minute, he clarifies;
“At my Grand Gala Ball of Coming Out, everybody will be obliged to wear a white dress, or else tuxedo tails and nothing else. A kiddie pool of sweet tea will be the move floor as we grapple with our complex personalities on the grounds that we all, every one of us, are intricate, elusive, and delicious. We’ll move to terrible eighties music as we lick and suck the overabundances of various mistreatments off each other. We’ll all turn out for what we are, and see ourselves reflected in each other’s body sparkle.”
This sounds unimaginable unless one has an aversion for turning out stories, elusive sexes and eighties music. Be that as it may, one man utopia is one man’s utopia and that is Schofield’s point. His voyage has brought him to this intersection and in his story flawlessness comes in type of the complex, the dangerous and the divine. That is the place Schofield and I concur. No preferable spot to start over the complex, the tricky and the delectable, regardless of the fact that my Grand Gala would not showcase eighties anything and may emphasize less common licking.
Schofield makes an eccentric specialty of deviation. The craft of going off track, leaving the genuine path, leaving on the wrong slope constitutes his showy mark. Each venture of his move out and about from young perplexity to grown-up perplexity is a deviation; and each straying is a savvy, diverting, perplexing and interesting story about sex, sex and Krispy Kreme donuts. I know, it is peculiar, however Schofield figures out how to transform the Krispy Kreme sensation into a similitude for sex change. I will never see a donut the same way again, and I adore donuts. Straying prompts new ways, streets uncharted, domains off the guide and off the divider. Yet dependably, Schofield heads us again to the prom, the ball, the scene of eccentric pre-adult mortification that, in his proficient hands, turns into an opportunity by and large for another and diverse understanding of the customs and ceremonies of transitioning in heteronormative USA.
Burke, Jennifer C. Visible : a femmethology. Ypsilanti, Mich: Homofactus Press, 2009. Print